Transformers + Substations Handbook: 2014

Transformer + Substations Handbook: 2014 is a collection of targeted articles written by authors willing to share their knowledge. It combines some of the best thinking in terms of tutorial-type and experience-based material; it covers some of the latest thinking and it reviews important background theory.


Articles in this Section

Transformer oil management overview

Transformer oil maintenance and management are important factors in the performance of oil-filled transformers.
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Arc-rated gloves and the new ASTM test method

Electrical tasks ranging from fault finding to switching are performed by hand – and yet, no standard covered electrical arc flash hand protection until 2013, when ASTM F2675-13 was introduced.
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Continuous humidity measurement in gas-insulated switchgear

A new transmitter on the market presents a combined solution for the monitoring of the most important parameters in condition monitoring, such as density, humidity. pressure and temperature.
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Transformer oil analysis – basic introduction

If regularly conducted, transformer oil analysis allows identification of specific fault conditions that may be developing.
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Transformer condition monitoring: making the electrical connection

We know that transformer failure is inconvenient and costly. Holistic strategies of condition monitoring are an important component of any transformer and substation system.
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Automatic voltage control of networks with embedded generation

No real network is as simple as a single source and a single load. Generation is embedded within the network, implying the need to be able to regulate the supply voltage throughout the network easily and reliably.
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Higher utilisation of power systems

Smart grids ensure better quality and reliability of the supply by dynamically matching supply to load.
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Ethernet in utilities for critical communications networks

Substations and energy networks rely on digital data – as does the control system. Reliable communications systems are therefore essential.
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Transformer winding temperature determination

Fibre optic sensors have improved to the point that direct measurement of winding temperature is becoming the preferred method for measuring this critical parameter.
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Lightning protection – where it matters most

Lightning poses a risk - lightning protection systems, surge and lightning protection and personnel protection against arc faults are essential.
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Innovative transformer protection relays

New protection devices play an important role in extending transformer life and limiting the stresses.
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Very Fast Transient Overvoltages on power transformers

Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) systems offer many advantages – but power transformers installed in these systems must be designed to deal with Very Fast Transient Overvoltages (VFTOs) and the associated overvoltages.
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Mobile substations – the sensible alternative

Fabricating the entire substation off-site has numerous advantages. Simply specify your substation and have it delivered to site
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Buchholz relays in South Africa

A Buchholz relay trip generally indicates that a potentially catastrophic situation has been avoided.
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Design and material selection of wind turbine generator transformers

Wind turbine generators have a completely different operating environment from standard power transformers.
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Proper transformer sizing and copper windings

Losses within the transformer have an associated cost as there is a trade-off between the initial cost of the copper versus the cost of the losses over the lifetime of a transformer.
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Power transformers – design and manufacture

From the perspective of the utility, power transformer efficiency has become one of the more important considerations – and the fundamentals of how the power transformer is built are critical.
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Fundamentals of transformer design

Transformers combine an electric and a magnetic circuit to form one of the most essential components on the ac network.
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