Abbreviations

AAmperes
ACAccuracy Class
AcAlternating Current
ACLAccess Control List
ACMAAustralian Communication and Media Authority
ADAnaerobic Digester
A/DAnalogue to Digital
ADAAmericans with Disabilities
ADCAnalogue to Digital Converter
ADRsAccessible Design Resources
ADSLAsynchronous Digital Subscriber Line
AEEAssociation of Energy Engineers (US-based)
AFCApproved For Construction
AfconeAfrican Commission on Nuclear Energy
AFDApproved for Design
AFEActive Front End
AFFAbove Finished Floor
AFGAbove Finished Grade
AGVAutomatic Guided Vehicle
AHFAdvanced Harmonic Filters
AHUAir Handling Unit
AICAmps Interrupting Capacity
AINAnalogue Input
ALCMSAirfield Lighting Control & Monitoring System
AMSApproved Measuring System
ANNAnnunciator
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute
AOPAdvanced Oxidisation Process
APAssembly and Programming
APCAdvanced Process Control
APCAssociated Production Centre
APDAsset Protection Devices
APIActive Pharmaceutical Ingredients
APIAmerican Petroleum Institute
APMAlternating Pulse Modulation
APSAdvanced Planning and Scheduling
ARCAdvanced Regulated Control
ASEISAAccelerated and Shared Growth in South Africa
ASICApplication Specific Integrated Circuit
ASRAdvanced Sulphur Reduction
ASSAdaptive Scheduling Systems
ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials
ATEAutomated Testing Equipment
ATSAutomatic Transfer Switch
AUAfrican Union
AWEAirborne Wind Energy
AWGAmerican Wire Gauge
BASBuilding Automation System
BATBattery
BBPLBroad Band Power Line
BEMSBuilding Energy Management System
BERBit Error
BFGBelow Finish Grade
BFSGBonded Foil Strain Gauges
BIOSBasic Input/ Output System
BIPVBuilding Integrated Photovoltaics
BJTBipolar Junction Transistor
BLdcBrushless Direct Current
BMFBuilding Management Facilities
BMSBuilding Management System
BNRBiological Nutrient Removal
BODBiological Oxygen Demand
BPFOBall Park Frequency of Outer Race
BSEBuilding Services and Equipment
BSIBritish Standards Institute
BTUBritish Thermal Unit
CConduit
C&IControl and Instrumentation
CAAClean Air Act
CAD/CAMComputer Aided Design/ Computer Aided Manufacture
CANController Area Network
CAPEXCapital Expenditure
CAT Computerised Axial Tomography
CATSConvergent Automation Technology Solution
CATVCable Television
CBCircuit Breaker
CBA Component Based Automation
CBEMA Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association
CBFControl Builder F
CCDCharge Coupled Device
CCSCarbon Capture and Storage
CCTVClosed Cicruit Television
CDChromatic Dispersion
CDM Clean Development Mechanism
CDP Carbon Disclosure Project
CEM Certified Energy Manager
CEMEP Committee of Manufacturers of Electrical Machines and Power Electronics
CFB Circulating Fluidised Bed
CFCContinuous Function Chart
CFL Compact Fluorescent Lamp
CHP Combined Heat and Power
CIFCommon Intermediate Format
CIGSCopper Indium Gallium Selenide
CIN Contact Input
CIP Cleaning in Process/Place
CIP Common Industrial Protocol
CIV Corona Inception Voltage
CMMS Computerised Maintenance Management System
CMVP Certified Measurement and Verification Professional
CMVPSA Council of Measurement and Verification Professionals of South Africa
COConduit Only
CO2Carbon Monoxide
CODChemical Oxygen Demand
COM Common Object Model
COMPS Centre of Material and Process Synthesis
COP Cleaning out of Place (process)
COPCongress of the Parties
COS Carbonyl Sulphide
CoS Class of Service
CP/M Control Programme for Micro Computers
CPTControl Power Transformer
CPU Central Processing Unit
CRCCyclic Redundancy Check
CRI Colour Rendering Index
CS2 Carbon Disulphide
CSIR Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
CSMA/CDCarrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
CSP Concentrated Solar Power
CTB Central Terminal Building
CTCContinuously Transposed Conductor
CTIA Cape Town International Airport
CTL Coal to Liquid
CTM Cable Theft Monitor
CTSCape Town Stadium
CUCopper
CVDChemical Vapour Disposition
CWDMCoarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
(D)Demolition
D&RDocumentation and Rationalisation
D/ADigital to Analogue
DALI Digitally Addressable Lightning Interface
DAQ Data Acquisition
dBDecibels
DcDirect Current
DCCTDc Current Transducer
DCOMDistributed Component Object Model
DCPData Control Program
DCS Distributed Control System
DFSK Digital Frequency Shift Keying
DGA Dissolved Gas Analysis
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DICDirect and Indirect Costs
DILDesign Insulation Level
DLLDynamic Link Library
DMM Digital Multi Meter
DMZ Demilitarised Zone
DBDDielectric Barrier Discharge
DNIDirect Normal Irradiation
DODissolved Oxygen
DoE Department of Energy
DOL Direct On Line
DOSDisk Operating System
DP Degree of Polymerisation
DP Differential Pressure
DP Distributed Peripherals
DPC Downtime Production Costs
DPF Displacement Power Factor
DP-QPSK Dual Polarised Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
DPR Digital Path Receiver
DRI Direct Refuse Iron
DSF Dispersion Shifted Fibre
DSM Demand Side Management
DSP Digital Signal Processor
DSCPDifferentiated Services Code Point
DSSCDye Sensitised Solar Cell
DSSS Direct Signal Spread Spectrum
DTC Direct Torque Control
DTIDepartment of Trade and Industry
DWDMDense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
EDF Electricité de France
EDFA Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifiers
EEC Electrical Energy Costs
EECEnergy and Environmental Consulting
EEDSM Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management
EEGErneuerbare Energien Gesetz (Law on)
EFExhaust Fan
Eff Efficiency
EGEquipment Grounding
EGUEngine Generator Unit
EHV Extra High Voltage
EIRP Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
ELCBEarth Leakage Circuit Breaker
eLPS External Lightning Protection Solution
EMEmergency
EMCElectro Magnetic Compatibility
EMF Electromagnetic Field
EMSEnergy Management System
EMTElectrical Metal Conduit
ENTElectrical Non-Metallic Conduit
EMSEnergy Metering System
EPExplosion Proof
EPEquipotential Platform
EPActEnergy Policy and Conservation Act
EPCM Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management
EPISEnergy Performance Indicator System
EPR Ethylene Propylene Rubber
EPRI Electric Power Research Institute
EQB Environmental Quality of Buildings
ERP Effective Radiated Power
ERP Enterprise Resource Planning
ESCO Energy Services Company
ESDElectrostatic Discharge
ESD Emergency Shutdown
ESGEnvironment, Social and Corporate Governance
ESREquivalent Series Resistance
ETF Energy Training Foundation
ETFExchange Traded Fund
EUEuropean Union
(F)Future
FAFire Alarm
FACpFire Alarm Control Panel
FAT Factory Acceptance Test
F+BFood and Beverage
FCFan Coil
FCC Federal Communication Commission
FDAFood and Drug Administration
FEAFinite Element Analysis
FERFrame Error Rate
FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
FIDSFlight Information Display System
FIFOFirst In - First Out
FLCFull Load Current
FPGAField Programmable Gate Array
fpsframes per second
FSK Frequency Shift Key
FTPFile Transfer Protocol
FUFuse
FWLIFull Wave Lightning Impulse
GaAsGallium Arsenide
GARPGeneric Attribute Registration Protocol
GBCSAGreen Building Council of South Africa
GCGas Chromatograph
GNDGround
GDPGrowth Domestic Product
GFCIGround Fault Circuit Interrupter
GFRGround Fault Relay
GHGGreenhouse Gas
GICGeo-magnetic Induced Currents
GISGas-insulated Swtichgear
GMRPGARP Multicast Registration Protocol
GOOSEGeneric Object Oriented Substation Event
GPSGlobal Positioning Satellite
GPS Global Positioning System
GPRGround Potential Rises
GSMGlobal System for Mobile Communications
GTLGas to Liquid
HAZOPHazard and Operability Study
HCVHigh Containment Valves
HFHydrofluoric Acid
HHHandhole
HIDHigh Intensity Discharge
HMIHuman Machine Interface
HOAHand-Off-Auto Switch
HPHorse Power
HPLCHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography
HPSHigh Pressure Sodium
HQEHigh Quality Environment
HSEHealth, Safety and Environment
HSRHigh-availability Seamless Redundancy
HTFHeat Transfer Formula
HVHigh Voltage
HVAC Heating, Ventilation, Air-conditioning
HzHertz
I/OInput/ Output
IACSIndustrial Automation and Control Systems
ICASAIndependent Communications Authority for South Africa
ICCIntegrated Control Configurator
ICSIndustrial Control Systems
IDMIntegrated Demand Management
IdsIdentifications
IEAInternational Energy Agency
IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission
IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
IEGTInjection Enhanced Gate Transistor
IFTInter-facial Tension
IGIsolated Ground
IGBT Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
IGCTIntegrated Gate Commuted Thyristor
ILEP Integrated Lightning Engineering Plan
ILEPSInternal Lightning Protection System
iLPSIntegrated Lightning Protection Solution
IPInternet Protocol
IPAPIndustrial Policy Action Plan
IPCIndustrial Personal Computer
IPMVPInternational Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol
IPP Independent Power Producer
IPsecInternet Protocol Security Architecture
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISM Industrial, Scientific, Medical
ISO International Standards Organisation
ISP Intelligent Signal Processing
IT Information Technology
ITTATC Information Technology Technical Assistance and Training Centre
JBJunction Box
KAICKilo-Amps Interrupting Capacity
KPAKey Performance Area
KSIAKing Shaka International Airport
KVKilovolt
KVAKilovolt-Amp
kVARReactive Power
KWKilowatt
KWHKilowatt-Hour
LANLocal Area Network
LCDLiquid Crystal Display
LDN Lightning Detection Network
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEH Light Emitting Heater
LOR Light Output Ratio
LPSLightning Protection System
LPZLightning Protection Zone
LRSLiquid Resistance Starters
LSILarge Scale Integration
L VLow Voltage
M&VMeasurement and Verification
MACMedia Access Control
MACMain Automation Contractor
mCBMain Circuit Breaker
McbMini circuit breaker
MCCMotor Control Centre
MCOVMaximum Continuous Operation Voltage
MCPMotor Circuit Protector
MEBBMain Equipotential Bonding Bar
MFRManufacturer
MHMetal Halide
MICEMechanical, Ingress, Climatic/Chemical, Electromagnetic
MLOMain Lugs Only
MOVMetal Oxide Varistor
MPMeasuring Point
MRIMagnetic Resonance Imaging
MSDSMaterial Safety Data Sheet
MSIMaster Systems Ingegrator
MTBFMean Time Before Failure
MTDRMetallic Time Domain Reflector
MTRMaximum Time to Respond
MVMedium Voltage
MVAMega-volt Amperes
MVRMechanical Vapour Compression
MWMicrowave
(N)New
NASANational Aeronautics and Space Administration
NATNetwork Address Translation (also IP Masquerading)
NDANon Disclosure Agreement
NDSFNon Dispersion Shifted Fibre
NECNeutral Earthing Resistor
NecsaSouth African Nuclear Energy Corporation
NEDNational Electric Code
NEEANational Energy Efficiency Agency
NEMANational Electrical Manufacturers Association
NESC National Electric Safety Code
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NGONon-governmental Organisation
NICNot In Contract
NLNight Light
NMBSNelson Mandela Bay Stadium
NOAANational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NPCNeutral Point Clamped
NPTNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
NPVNet Present Value
NRS National Rationalise Specification
NTPNetwork Time Protocol
NTSNot to Scale
NZ-DSFNon Zero Dispersion Shifted Fibre
O&MOperations and Management
OCOn Centre
OCGTOpen Cycle Gas Turbine
ODAFOil Directed Air Forced
OELOccupational Exposure Level
OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer
OFAFOil Forced Air Forced
OHS Occupational Health and Safety
OHSA Occupational Health and Safety Act
OIPOil Impregnated Paper
OLEObject Linking and Embedding
ONAFOil Natural Air Forced
ONANOil Natural Air Natural
OPCOLE for Process Control
OPEX Operational Expenditure
OPVOrganic Photovoltaics
OSHAOccupation Health and Safety Act
OTSC Once Through Super Critical
P&ACProcess and Automation Control
P&GProvisional and General
PAPublic Address
PBPull Box
PBMRPebble Bed Modular Reactor
PCBPrinted Circuit Board
PCBPoly Chlorinated Biphenyl
PCDDPoly Chlorinated Dibenzo Dioxins
PCDFPoly Chlorinated Dibenzo Furanes
PCI Personal Computer Instrumentation
PCI Protocol Control Information
PCMPhase Change Material
PCNProcess Control Network
PCPPower Conservation Programme
PDPartial Discharge
PDCAPlan-Do-Check-Act
PF Power Factor
PFPulverised Coal
PFCPower Factor Correction
PFLPower Fault Locator
PHAProcess Hazard Analysis
PID Proportional Integral Derivative
PILCPaper Insulated Lead Covered Cable
PKI Public Key Infrastructure
PLCProgrammable Logic Controller
PMDPolarisation Mode Dispersion
PMI Positive Material Identification
PNPositive Negative
POF Plastic Optical Fibre
PoSPoint of Sale
PPPulsed Power
PpbParts per billion
PPEPersonal Protection Equipment
PpmParts per minute
PQPower Quality
PRPParallel Redundancy Protocol
PTPotential Transformer
PTPPrecision Time Protocol
PTPv2Precision Time Protocol version 2
PTTPress-to-Test
PTZ Pan Tilt Zoom
PVPhoto Voltaic
PVProcess Variable
PVCPolyvinyl Chloride
PWPulse Width Modulation
QMSQuality Management System
QoSQuality of Service
RASRemote Access Server
RE Renewable Energy
RECPTReceptacle Outlet
REIPPPPRenewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme
REFITRenewable Energy Feed In Tariff
RF Radio Frequency
RGSRigid Galvanised Steel
RIPResin Impregnated Paper
RISCReduced Instruction Set Controller
RMURing-Main Unit
rpmrevolutions per minute
ROIRate/return of Investment
ROSE (Foundation)Recycling Oil Saves the Environment
RSSRelay Server Software
RSTPRapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RTD Resistance Temperature Detector
RTO Real Time Optimisation
RTU Remote Terminal Unit
RVSSReduced Voltage Soft Start
SABS South African Bureau of Standards
SAEE Southern African Association for Energy Efficiency
SAIDISystems Average Interruption Duration Index
SALDN SA Lightning Detection Network
SANStorage Area Network
SANAE South African National Antarctic Expedition
SANEASouth African National Energy Association
SANAS South African National Accreditation System
SANEDISouth African National Energy Development Institute
SANS South African National Standard
SANSA South African National Space Agency
SARSSouth African Revenue Service
SATSite Acceptance Test
SBATSustainable Building Assessment Tool
SCADASupervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCR Silicon Controlled Rectifier
SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SGCT Symmetrical Gate Commutated Thyristor
SiC Silicon Carbide
SIL Safety Integrity Level
SISSafety Instrumented System
SM Single Mode
SMTSurface Mount Technology
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SOC System On Chip
SPD Surge Protection Device
SQLStructured Query Language (database)
SSCScreened Separable Connector
SSCSubmerged Scrapper Conveyors
SWHSolar Water Heating
T&O Taste and Odour
TCTechnical Committee
TCPTransmission Control Protocol
TCOTotal Cost of Ownership
TDR Time Domain Reflector
THO Total Harmonic Distortion
TLCThin Layer Chromatology
TOCTotal Owing Cost
TOU Time of Use
TS Thermally Stabilised
TSSP Transient Switching Surge Protection
TU Thermally Upgraded
TVSSTransient Voltage Surge Suppressor
UFUnder Floor
UGUnderground
UHFUltra High Frequency
UHTUltra High Temperature
UNEPUnited Nations Environment Programme
UNFCCCUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNPRIUnited National Principles of Responsible Investment
UONunless Otherwise Noted
UPSUninterruptible Power Supply
USB Universal Serial Bus
USCUnscreened Separable Connector
UVUltra Violet
VVolt
VAVolt-Amp
V/FVoltage to Frequency
VFDVariable Frequency Drive
VFTVery Fast Terminal
VFTOVery Fast Transient Overvoltage
VHF Very High Frequency
VLANVirtual Local Area Network
VOCVolatile Organic Compound
VoIPVoice-over Internet Protocol
VPNVirtual Private Network
VPIVacuum Pressure Impregnation
VPS Virtual Power Station
VSDVariable Speed Drive
WAGESWater, Air, Gas, Electricity and Steam
WAN Wide Area Network
WCMWorld Class Manufacturing
WDMWavelength Division Multiplexing
WFQWeighted Fair Queuing
WiFiWireless Fidelity
WiMAXWorldwide Inter-Operability Microwave Access
WPWeatherproof
WSN Wireless Sensor-based Networks
WWFWorld Wide Fund for Nature
XLPECross Linked Polyethylene
XFMRTransformer